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The world renound ruby mines at Mogok, Burma

The sapphire mines at Bang Kacha, Chanthaburi, Thailand.

Gem mining at Pailin, Cambodia.

Sapphire mining at Bo Ploi, Kanchanaburi, Thailand

Ruby mining at Bo Rai, Trat, Thailand.

The marble village of Sagyin, Shan State, Burma.

Inclusion Gallery

A guest crystal with colour swirls or 'treacle' inclusions in the background. Treacle is a unique inclusion to rubies from Mogok. A cluster of apatite crystals in this un-treated ruby from Mogok. Rutile 'silk' inclusions in un-treated Mogok ruby.
Un-Treated Mogok Ruby Un-Treated Mogok Ruby Un-Treated Mogok Ruby
 
Apatite crystals seen through different facets, creating a mirroring effect. A cluster of guest crystals in this un-treated Burmese ruby. Guest crystals in un-treated Mogok ruby.
Un-Treated Mogok Ruby Un-Treated Mogok Ruby Un-Treated Mogok Ruby
 
Colour swirls or 'treacle' in Mogok Ruby. Guest crystals and treacle in Mogok Ruby. Calcite guest crystals and treacle in Mogok Ruby.
Un-Treated Mogok Ruby Un-Treated Mogok Ruby Un-Treated Mogok Ruby
 
Calcite guest crystal in Mogok Ruby. This partially disolved rutile silk is evidence this stone has undergone high tempreature heat-treatment. A typical Mong Hsu ruby with distinctive sleepy appearance.
Un-Treated Mogok Ruby Heated Vietnamese Ruby Heated Mong Hsu Ruby
 
A relatively clean Mong Hsu ruby but still showing white clouds. A typical Mong Hsu ruby clearly showing white cloudy inclusions. A typical Mong Hsu ruby with distinctive sleepy appearance.
Heated Mong Hsu Ruby Heated Mong Hsu Ruby Heated Mong Hsu Ruby
 
A typical Mong Hsu ruby with distinctive sleepy appearance. A typical Thai ruby. A typical Thai ruby.
Heated Mong Hsu Ruby Heated Thai Ruby Heated Thai Ruby
 
Guest crystals and silk in Burmese sapphire. Guest crystals standing out in high relief. A liquid fingerprint inclusion forming an intricate pattern.
Un-Treated Mogok Sapphire Un-Treated Mogok Sapphire Un-Treated Mogok Sapphire
 
Guest crystals in Mogok sapphire. Guest crystals and liquid fingerprint inclusions. This stone also contains two-phase inclusions. Guest crystals and rutile silk viewed with fibre optic light.
Un-Treated Mogok Sapphire Un-Treated Mogok Sapphire Un-Treated Mogok Sapphire
 
The same stone as the previous image with the guest crystals and rutile silk viewed with dark field illumination. Guest crystals and rutile silk in Mogok sapphire. The iridescent colours seen in this image are a result of using fibre optic light to view the rutile silk.
Un-Treated Mogok Sapphire Un-Treated Mogok Sapphire Un-Treated Sri Lankan Sapphire
 
Rutile silk showing iridescent colours, which can be seen when using fibre optic lighting. Typical sleepy appearence of Thai sapphires from Kanchanaburi. The sleepy appearence of these Thai sapphires is caused by tiny white particles, which cannot be removed by heat-treatment.
Un-Treated Sri Lankan Sapphire Heated Thai Sapphire Heated Thai Sapphire
 
Tiny white particle inclusions intesecting at 60 & 120 degrees. Tiny white particle inclusions giving distinctive sleepy appearence of Thai sapphires from Kanchanaburi. Uranian pyrochlore inclusions, which are often mistakenly thought of as ruby crystals. These inclusions are unique to sapphires from Pailin.
Heated Thai Sapphire Heated Thai Sapphire Heated Pailin Sapphire
 
Liquid fingerprint inclusions and uranian pyrochlore in Pailin Sapphire.   Specks of uranian pyrochlore in Pailin sapphire.
Heated Pailin Sapphire Heated Pailin Sapphire
 
Guest crystal in Burmese pink sapphire. Guest crystals and rutile silk right down in the culet of this brilliant cut pink sapphire. These inclusions are not visible through the table due to the way the stone has been cut. A cluster of guest crystals.
Un-Treated Mogok Sapphire Un-Treated Mogok Sapphire Un-Treated Mogok Sapphire
 
An unusual cluster of rutile silk in a triangular pattern. If this gem had undergone high tempreature heat-treatment, these inclusions would melt and diffuse into the stone giving them a hazy appearence. Guest crystals in this un-treated Madagascan pink sapphire. Guest crystals in un-treated Burmese yellow sapphire.
Un-Treated Madagascan Sapphire Un-Treated Madagascan Sapphire Un-Treated Mogok Sapphire
 
Unusual guest crystals stand out in high relief in this Sri Lankan star sapphire. Zircon particle inclusions commonly seen in Madagascan pink sapphires. Zircon particle inclusions commonly seen in Madagascan pink sapphires.
Un-Treated Sri Lankan Sapphire Heated Madgascan Sapphire Heated Madgascan Sapphire
 
Zircon particle inclusions commonly seen in Madagascan pink sapphires. Zircon particle inclusions commonly seen in Madagascan pink sapphires. The stress ring around the crystal in the top of the picture is caused by high tempreature heat-treatment. Zircon particles and parallel needle inclusions in Madagascan pink sapphires.
Heated Madgascan Sapphire Heated Madgascan Sapphire Heated Madgascan Sapphire
 
Zircon particle inclusions commonly seen in Madagascan pink sapphires. Discoid inclusion in Madagascan yellow sapphire. Zircon particle inclusions in Madagascan yellow sapphire.
Heated Madgascan Sapphire Heated Madgascan Sapphire Heated Madgascan Sapphire
 
Needle inclusion in Madagascan yellow sapphire. Zircon particle inclusions in Madagascan yellow sapphire. Zircon particle inclusions in Madagascan yellow sapphire.
Heated Madgascan Sapphire Heated Madgascan Sapphire Heated Madgascan Sapphire
 
Byssolite or horsetail inclusions unique to Russian demantoids. Byssolite or horsetail inclusions unique to Russian demantoids. Byssolite or horsetail inclusions unique to Russian demantoids.
Russian Demantoid Garnet Russian Demantoid Garnet Russian Demantoid Garnet
 
Russian Demantoid Garnet Russian Demantoid Garnet Russian Demantoid Garnet
 
Guest crystals. A relatively clean Afghani emerald.
Russian Demantoid Garnet Spessartite Garnet Panjshir Emerald
 
A feather inclusion bending around a negative octahedral crystal with other crystals in background. Guest crystals. Guest crystals.
Burmese Spinel Burmese Spinel Tsavorite Garnet
 
  Guest crystals & needle inclusions.  
Tsavorite Garnet
 
Zircon crystals turn 'fluffy' after treatment with beryllium. Be-treated orange/red sapphire from Songea. Wheat-like liquid feather inclusions in a Be-treated sapphire.
Beryllium-Treated Sapphire Beryllium-Treated Sapphire Beryllium-Treated Sapphire
 
Fluffy cotton wool type inclusions with haloes caused by the high tempreatures used in the heating process in a Be-treated sapphire. More fluffy zircon crystals. Liquid tubular channel inclusions in a Be-treated sapphire.
Beryllium-Treated Sapphire Beryllium-Treated Sapphire Beryllium-Treated Sapphire
 
Dendritic inclusions on a plane with fuzzy cotton wool type inclusions in a Be-treated sapphire.   A cross-sectioned slice of a Be-treated Madagascan pink sapphire, clearly showing the orange skin and pink inner core.
Beryllium-Treated Sapphire Beryllium-Treated Sapphire
 
The back of a Verneuil or Flame- Fusion synthetic star sapphire, clearly showing curved colour banding. Top of synthetic star sapphire showing curved colour banding. Curved colour banding.
Synthetic Star Sapphire Synthetic Star Sapphire Synthetic Star Sapphire
 
A multitude of tiny gas bubbles Curved striae in synthetic flame-fusion ruby. Flame-fusion synthetic ruby with added whispy & web-like inclusions to mimic natural inclusions.
Synthetic Star Sapphire Synthetic Ruby Synthetic Ruby
 
Web like inclusions and curved striae visable to the right of the picture.   Whispy web like inclusions added by heating the stone and dropping the stone in liquid.
Synthetic Ruby Synthetic Ruby

 

 

Untreated Ruby Inclusions            Untreated Sapphire Inclusions            Synthetic Inclusions

 

         Heated Ruby Inclusions               Lead-Glass Treated Rubies            Beryllium-Treated Sapphires

 

 

 

 

 

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